Results showed that participants from the no-weapon condition were more accurate in recall. Students are not representative of the general population in a number of ways.
There were 21 witnesses interviewed by the police originally who had witnessed the event from different viewpoints: The word smashed incorporates broken glass in to their memories as the word smashed implies broken glass.
To test their hypothesis that the language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory.
Can you think of a way that this problem might of been overcome? The addition of false details to a memory of an event is referred to as confabulation. If the second explanation is true we would expect participants to remember other details that are not true.
Outline the possible sampling technique that may have been used in this study. Participants were asked to identify the man from a selection of 50 people.
For example, they may be required to give a description of a robbery or a road accident someone has seen. In real life the crash would be unexpected and there would be more emotional involvement which would effect recall. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 2 This implies that misleading information may have a greater influence in the lab rather and that Loftus and Palmer's study may have lacked ecological validity.
The participants knew they were taking part in a psychology experiment. Procedure — The participants were shown a short film of a multiple car crash, which lasted for one minute, though the action lasted for four seconds. Afterwards the students were questioned about the film.
Outline the possible sampling technique that may have been used in this study. Forty-five American students formed an opportunity sample. Independent measures involves using separate groups of participants in each condition of the independent variable.
The memory representation is altered: The videos were shown to the participants in random order. Her main focus has been on the influence of mis leading information in terms of both visual imagery and wording of questions in relation to eyewitness testimony.
If the second explanation is true we would expect participants to remember other details that are not true. Loftus and Palmer support the reconstructive memory hypothesis. A study conducted by Yuille and Cutshall conflicts the findings of this study. In this experiment loftus and palmer argue that two things can be happening: Thus, they aimed to show that leading questions could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect, as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the question.
Remember that you are developing an argument. All aged between ; only three female, and ten males The victim was not asked to participate as he did not wish to relive the trauma. The participants in the smashed condition overestimated the speed of the cars. A case study of eyewitness memory of a crime.
In four of the films the accident took place at the following speeds:Loftus, E.
F., & Palmer, J. C. (). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and palmolive2day.coml of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 13(5), This is the classic cognitive psychology study which you will look at for your H AS OCR Psychology exam. Loftus and Palmer Essay Loftus and Palmer This study was conducted to determine whether memory could be distorted by other information, which occurs after the event.
The idea of the study was to see if any information they supplied influenced the witness’s memory information they had. Loftus and Palmer support the reconstructive memory hypothesis.
They believe that information gathered at the time of an icident is altered by information gathered after an event.
These two sources of information merge over time and it is impossible to seperate them. The accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony has been tested by many different approaches in psychological research of memory.
A study by Loftus and Palmer () into the accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony aimed to find out if changing the wording of a question could. Loftus and Palmer () Study. Aim: To test their hypothesis that the language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory.
Thus, they aimed to show that leading questions could distort eyewitness testimony accounts and so have a confabulating effect, as the account would become distorted by cues provided in the palmolive2day.com: Saul Mcleod.
The Loftus and Palmer study is a laboratory experiment. This means that the study is artificial. The artificiality of the setting can intimidate participants or make them more obedient.Download