The PowerPoint includes links to information about measuring river discharge. If asked to describe the hydrograph you could quote the lag time, peak discharge and comment on the steepness of the rising and falling limbs remember, state values off of the graph.
It allows students to explore one of the greatest physical constraints aquatic organisms are exposed to on a daily basis. An additional Human factors affecting river discharge benefit was the electricity generation by the released water from the dam.
Is there a relationship between stream order and discharge in catchment x?
Teaching Notes and Tips While this exercise uses river examples from 2 New Hampshire rivers, you should consider utilizing 2 rivers in your region to make the exercise more relevant and compelling for your students.
Retrieved January from www. Assessment I assess this module and the skills as students turn in their end of module exercises, as well as their responses to the module content questions. This study used data on the discharge obtained from six gauging stations along the Damour River and its tributaries, and rates of precipitation obtained from rain gauges located in Beirut belonging to LMS.
Additionally, key concepts in this exercise are part of future exams.
The high dam successfully controlled the flow of the Nile: The dam had a role as a sediment trap — as a result the sediment load was filling the reservoir instead of reaching the land which required it for good fertility.
Soils which have larger particle sizes e. The skills used in this module are used by students in future laboratory exercises where students apply these concepts to their own field study of streams in the region.
These reasons are essentially all the factors we discussed previously. The falling limb is the opposite showing that the discharge is falling. Can you compare flows like discharge, infiltration and evapotranspiration between the built-up areas and the open areas?
Toxic Substances Resident Fish and Aquatic Life, Drinking Water Some toxic substances may be harmful, some may undergo chemical changes to become harmful, and some may accumulate in sediments or throughout the food chain to levels that adversely affect public health, aquatic life, or wildlife.
Each research question has been split into 2 or 3 sub-questions. The effects of rainfall intensity should be considered to avoid overestimating or underestimating the contributions of rainfall changes to the variations of runoff and sediment load in the semiarid region. Context for Use This tutorial is intended for introductory courses in water resource, hydrology, or aquatic ecology.
So far, numerous studies have examined the characteristics of runoff and sediment load in this region [ 36 — 39 ], but the anthropogenic and climatic impacts on the changes of runoff and sediment load in the ten small tributaries have received less attention. Given its limited resources of arable land in the Nile valley, Egypt was looking for opportunities to expand its agriculture, energy and associated manufacturing production.
Although oxygen concentrations fluctuate under natural conditions, human activities can result in severe oxygen depletion. An example of non-point source pollution is fine sediment deposition in a stream bed. Water discharge and sediment flux, which are the two most important elements of the hydrologic cycle, not only reflect the characteristics of river systems themselves but also reflect the changing of the catchment environment [ 34 ].
This includes having students determining how to calculate the area of a non-uniform shape such as a stream or river cross-section.
Evergreen plants are able to transpire throughout the year assuming temperatures are high enough and moisture is available — not frozen. For a given time seriesthe statistic. The study used these data to evaluate the relationship between the precipitation and streams discharge, and to assess the ratios of runoff, evapotranspiration and infiltration.
The distribution of monthly precipitation, runoff, and sediment load was extremely uneven and was mainly concentrated in the flood season from June to September. Disturbances such as fires, windthrow, or even debris torrents can influence stream temperature, turbidity, and other water quality parameters.
One factor is the shape of the drainage basin. The existence of such a large freshwater reservoir in an arid climate was a major advantage for the Egyptian economy and population. The majority of the discharge came from the Blue Nile which is located in a tropical climate with seasonal rainfall between April and October, followed by a drought in the dry season which caused a high peak followed by a dip in the discharge.
The discharge of a river changes over time depending on a few factors. Learning Goals The goals of this module are to: Water extracted for industry, irrigation, and domestic use, also reduce discharge.
The ten small tributaries, including Maobula, Buersetaigou, Heilaigou, Xiliugou, Hantaichuan, Haoqinghe, Hashenlachuan, Muhaerhe, Dongliugou, and Husitaihe, are a principal sediment source in the upper Yellow River and are adjacent to the middle Yellow River basin which is one of the regions with the most severe soil erosion in the world [ 32 ].A hydrograph is a chart showing, most often, river stage (height of the water above an arbitrary altitude) and streamflow (amount of water, usually in cubic feet per second).
Other properties, such as rainfall and water-quality parameters can also be plotted. Discharge & Hydrographs. By Alex Jackson. Last The discharge of a river (or stream) is the volume of water that flows past a point in the river’s course per second.
The volume is indicating that the discharge is increasing. The falling limb is the opposite showing that the discharge is falling. Factors Affecting a Storm Hydrograph. Chapter 3 Stream Discharge Factors Affecting the Volume of Flow.
Precipitation is the primary factor because it usually provides the greatest percent of Human Activities That Affect Flow.
Land-Use – When vegetated areas and wetlands are converted to bare soil and/or. Feb 07, · Factors affecting hydrograph shape February 7, by sisgeo There are multiple factors affecting the discharge and discharge rate of a river, particularly after a high amount of rainfall.
Jul 24, · The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Stream flow is an important factor in the water ecosystem and is responsible for many of the physical characteristics of the stream.
Stream flow can also modify the .Download